Author Topic: All things brain...  (Read 5749 times)

xSilverPhinx

  • Non Dvcor
  • Administrator
  • Luxembourg Trembles!
  • *****
  • Posts: 14485
  • Gender: Female
  • "Fire together, wire together"
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #120 on: August 17, 2018, 01:13:59 AM »
That's cool Dave!
I'm just a student of the game that they taught me.


Recusant

  • Miscreant Erendrake
  • Administrator
  • Guardian of Reason
  • *****
  • Posts: 5952
  • Gender: Male
  • infidel barbarian
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #121 on: August 28, 2018, 10:09:07 AM »
"Scientists identify a new kind of human brain cell" | ScienceDaily

Quote
One of the most intriguing questions about the human brain is also one of the most difficult for neuroscientists to answer: What sets our brains apart from those of other animals?

"We really don't understand what makes the human brain special," said Ed Lein, Ph.D., Investigator at the Allen Institute for Brain Science. "Studying the differences at the level of cells and circuits is a good place to start, and now we have new tools to do just that."

In a new study published today in the journal Nature Neuroscience, Lein and his colleagues reveal one possible answer to that difficult question. The research team, co-led by Lein and Gábor Tamás, Ph.D., a neuroscientist at the University of Szeged in Szeged, Hungary, has uncovered a new type of human brain cell that has never been seen in mice and other well-studied laboratory animals.

Tamás and University of Szeged doctoral student Eszter Boldog dubbed these new cells "rosehip neurons" -- to them, the dense bundle each brain cell's axon forms around the cell's center looks just like a rose after it has shed its petals, he said. The newly discovered cells belong to a class of neurons known as inhibitory neurons, which put the brakes on the activity of other neurons in the brain.

The study hasn't proven that this special brain cell is unique to humans. But the fact that the special neuron doesn't exist in rodents is intriguing, adding these cells to a very short list of specialized neurons that may exist only in humans or only in primate brains.

[Continues . . .]
"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
— H. L. Mencken


Tank

  • Fed up with stupid.
  • Administrator
  • Excellent and Indefatigable Guardian of Reason
  • *****
  • Posts: 30297
  • Gender: Male
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #122 on: August 28, 2018, 10:59:13 AM »
Interesting study.
If religions were TV channels atheism is turning the TV off.
“Religion is a culture of faith; science is a culture of doubt.” ― Richard P. Feynman
'It is said that your life flashes before your eyes just before you die. That is true, it's called Life.' - Terry Pratchett
Remember, your inability to grasp science is not a valid argument against it.

xSilverPhinx

  • Non Dvcor
  • Administrator
  • Luxembourg Trembles!
  • *****
  • Posts: 14485
  • Gender: Female
  • "Fire together, wire together"
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #123 on: August 28, 2018, 02:55:47 PM »
That's cool, but Nature Neuroscience? That's an excellent journal and all, but Cell has a way higher impact factor, I wonder if they tried to submit their paper to that journal. :notsure:

They probably did, I think it's safe to say that everyone wants to see their paper published in Cell:P
I'm just a student of the game that they taught me.


Dave

  • Formerly known as Gloucester
  • Don't Pray in My School, and I Won't Think in Your Church
  • *****
  • Posts: 7039
  • Gender: Male
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #124 on: August 30, 2018, 09:04:00 PM »
Another potential new method for the control of epilectic seizures:

Quote
Electrophoretic drug delivery for seizure control
[...]
Here, we present an electrophoretic drug delivery device based on the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP), which offers the ability to deliver drugs with precise spatiotemporal control (13, 14). In contrast to other drug delivery devices, the ion pump works by electrophoretically pumping ions across an ion exchange membrane and thereby delivers only the drug of interest and not the solvent (aside from a few water molecules per ion that make up the hydration shell).
[...]

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/8/eaau1291

Seemingly the implant system monitors brain activity and, on cue, delivers the drugs to the specific area via electrical potentials through a permeable membrane. Works in the animal model.

It seems there may be potential for the treatment of Parkinsonism as well.
Tomorrow is precious, don't ruin it by fouling up today.

xSilverPhinx

  • Non Dvcor
  • Administrator
  • Luxembourg Trembles!
  • *****
  • Posts: 14485
  • Gender: Female
  • "Fire together, wire together"
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #125 on: September 02, 2018, 03:05:46 PM »
Another potential new method for the control of epilectic seizures:

Quote
Electrophoretic drug delivery for seizure control
[...]
Here, we present an electrophoretic drug delivery device based on the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP), which offers the ability to deliver drugs with precise spatiotemporal control (13, 14). In contrast to other drug delivery devices, the ion pump works by electrophoretically pumping ions across an ion exchange membrane and thereby delivers only the drug of interest and not the solvent (aside from a few water molecules per ion that make up the hydration shell).
[...]

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/8/eaau1291

Seemingly the implant system monitors brain activity and, on cue, delivers the drugs to the specific area via electrical potentials through a permeable membrane. Works in the animal model.

It seems there may be potential for the treatment of Parkinsonism as well.

Looks like pharmacology is biting back at optogenetics! :lol:

Thanks Dave, I've shared that article with my labmates. 

I'm just a student of the game that they taught me.


Dave

  • Formerly known as Gloucester
  • Don't Pray in My School, and I Won't Think in Your Church
  • *****
  • Posts: 7039
  • Gender: Male
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #126 on: September 21, 2018, 12:20:31 PM »
Quote
Science of Addiction

The Science Gallery London at Kings College London, right under the Shard, is a brand new venue for the collision of art, science and culture, and its opening exhibition is called Hooked, a series of installations and works by people who have experienced addiction.

Adam Rutherford explores the neuroscience, the psychology and the epidemiology of addiction; what the latest research says about what addiction is, and how that can help us treat people experiencing addiction. He discusses these questions with psychologist Dr Sally Marlow and neurologist Professor Mitul Mehta who are both at Kings College and have been involved in the exhibition, and Dr Suzi Gage from Liverpool University who studies the epidemiology of addiction. He also talks to the curator of Hooked, Hannah Redler Hawes, and to two of the Science Gallery Young Leaders, Elly Magson and Mandeep Singh, who show him a couple of the exhibits.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/play/b0bk1c4s
Tomorrow is precious, don't ruin it by fouling up today.

xSilverPhinx

  • Non Dvcor
  • Administrator
  • Luxembourg Trembles!
  • *****
  • Posts: 14485
  • Gender: Female
  • "Fire together, wire together"
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #127 on: September 26, 2018, 09:12:45 PM »
I'm just a student of the game that they taught me.


Icarus

  • The wise one.
  • Guardian of Reason
  • *****
  • Posts: 5159
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #128 on: September 29, 2018, 12:05:55 AM »
Fascinating video Silver. Who knew that the  dragonfly is such an efficient predator?   More importantly, who knew that we could plot the brain input of what we generally think of as a bug? 

So much to learn, so little time.

xSilverPhinx

  • Non Dvcor
  • Administrator
  • Luxembourg Trembles!
  • *****
  • Posts: 14485
  • Gender: Female
  • "Fire together, wire together"
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #129 on: September 30, 2018, 05:10:27 PM »
Fascinating video Silver. Who knew that the  dragonfly is such an efficient predator?   More importantly, who knew that we could plot the brain input of what we generally think of as a bug? 

So much to learn, so little time.

Indeed. Scary little critters, aren't they? :o

Little hunting machines.
I'm just a student of the game that they taught me.


Recusant

  • Miscreant Erendrake
  • Administrator
  • Guardian of Reason
  • *****
  • Posts: 5952
  • Gender: Male
  • infidel barbarian
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #130 on: October 17, 2018, 03:02:36 PM »
Apparently dogs "listen harder" when their humans say words the dogs don't know. The study described below also provided scientific evidence for something that dog people have known for a very long time--dogs are capable of learning the meaning of words at least to a limited extent, rather than simply responding in a "Pavlovian" way to the words.

Still, the scientist's studies provide evidence that dogs respond more readily to visual cues such as gestures. This is another thing that dog people have known for a long time. I recall travelling with a friend and his dog. He always had trouble getting his dog to jump into the truck with a vocal command. I was able to show him that a sweeping gesture of the hand from thigh level up toward the open door (in combination with the command he'd been using--"Brutus, up!") got an immediate response from the dog, who readily jumped in.

"Scientists chase mystery of how dogs process words" | ScienceDaily

Quote
When some dogs hear their owners say "squirrel," they perk up, become agitated. They may even run to a window and look out of it. But what does the word mean to the dog? Does it mean, "Pay attention, something is happening?" Or does the dog actually picture a small, bushy-tailed rodent in its mind?

Frontiers in Neuroscience published one of the first studies using brain imaging to probe how our canine companions process words they have been taught to associate with objects, conducted by scientists at Emory University. The results suggest that dogs have at least a rudimentary neural representation of meaning for words they have been taught, differentiating words they have heard before from those they have not.

"Many dog owners think that their dogs know what some words mean, but there really isn't much scientific evidence to support that," says Ashley Prichard, a PhD candidate in Emory's Department of Psychology and first author of the study. "We wanted to get data from the dogs themselves -- not just owner reports."

"We know that dogs have the capacity to process at least some aspects of human language since they can learn to follow verbal commands," adds Emory neuroscientist Gregory Berns, senior author of the study. "Previous research, however, suggests dogs may rely on many other cues to follow a verbal command, such as gaze, gestures and even emotional expressions from their owners."

The Emory researchers focused on questions surrounding the brain mechanisms dogs use to differentiate between words, or even what constitutes a word to a dog.

Berns is founder of the Dog Project, which is researching evolutionary questions surrounding man's best, and oldest friend. The project was the first to train dogs to voluntarily enter a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner and remain motionless during scanning, without restraint or sedation. Studies by the Dog Project have furthered understanding of dogs' neural response to expected reward, identified specialized areas in the dog brain for processing faces, demonstrated olfactory responses to human and dog odors, and linked prefrontal function to inhibitory control.

[Continues . . .]

"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
— H. L. Mencken


Icarus

  • The wise one.
  • Guardian of Reason
  • *****
  • Posts: 5159
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #131 on: October 18, 2018, 12:44:30 AM »
My little dog Scooter is an Australian Shepherd.  He is 18 years old and stone deaf.  He and I communicate rather well by hand signals alone.  He responds to signals and if he disagrees he will vocalize.  We have that stuff covered and I am proud of his ability to adapt.

One of my previous Aussies was named Sailor.  We were inseparable.  Sailor was so good at signals that a mere movement of my eyes could send him left or right, finger movement could send him in or out.  Sailor left me tearfully heartbroken when he was about eleven.

Eighteen is beyond the life expectancy of most dogs.  Somehow "the Scoot" has hung in there and continues to cost plenty of money for periodic vet bills which I cheerfully pay.  He is my pal. . So far so good.  The little dude is perfectly mobile and remains a chow hound. 

One of these days I will have to do what I have to do with my best friend. I have been a lifetime dog guy but I cannot, in good conscience,  contemplate having another dog.  That is because I do not want to have my next companion feel abandoned because I have died before him or her.  I reckon I could have a Great Dane whose life expectancy is about eight years and I will manage to make it past 96 or more......or not. 

Tank

  • Fed up with stupid.
  • Administrator
  • Excellent and Indefatigable Guardian of Reason
  • *****
  • Posts: 30297
  • Gender: Male
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #132 on: October 18, 2018, 06:32:22 AM »
My little dog Scooter is an Australian Shepherd.  He is 18 years old and stone deaf.  He and I communicate rather well by hand signals alone.  He responds to signals and if he disagrees he will vocalize.  We have that stuff covered and I am proud of his ability to adapt.

One of my previous Aussies was named Sailor.  We were inseparable.  Sailor was so good at signals that a mere movement of my eyes could send him left or right, finger movement could send him in or out.  Sailor left me tearfully heartbroken when he was about eleven.

Eighteen is beyond the life expectancy of most dogs.  Somehow "the Scoot" has hung in there and continues to cost plenty of money for periodic vet bills which I cheerfully pay.  He is my pal. . So far so good.  The little dude is perfectly mobile and remains a chow hound. 

One of these days I will have to do what I have to do with my best friend. I have been a lifetime dog guy but I cannot, in good conscience,  contemplate having another dog.  That is because I do not want to have my next companion feel abandoned because I have died before him or her.  I reckon I could have a Great Dane whose life expectancy is about eight years and I will manage to make it past 96 or more......or not.

You don't have to start with a puppy.
If religions were TV channels atheism is turning the TV off.
“Religion is a culture of faith; science is a culture of doubt.” ― Richard P. Feynman
'It is said that your life flashes before your eyes just before you die. That is true, it's called Life.' - Terry Pratchett
Remember, your inability to grasp science is not a valid argument against it.

Icarus

  • The wise one.
  • Guardian of Reason
  • *****
  • Posts: 5159
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #133 on: Today at 01:30:54 AM »
That is a valid observation Tank. There are plenty of damn good dogs at the shelter who need my care and friendship.   

Somewhere on or about Sept. 11 2001 I adopted a Bernese Mountain dog from the SPCA shelter. He was about 4 years old at that time.  He had been with three other families who abandoned him for whatever unfortunate reason. Teddy gave me the best years of his life and he was my constant and dedicated companion.  He lasted for about six years and I can still become tearful when I think of him. Like now. ............So maybe an older dog could be my new companion..............sure as hell he/she would be grateful for my attention and care. That's what good dogs do.

xSilverPhinx

  • Non Dvcor
  • Administrator
  • Luxembourg Trembles!
  • *****
  • Posts: 14485
  • Gender: Female
  • "Fire together, wire together"
Re: All things brain...
« Reply #134 on: Today at 01:45:29 AM »
Apparently dogs "listen harder" when their humans say words the dogs don't know. The study described below also provided scientific evidence for something that dog people have known for a very long time--dogs are capable of learning the meaning of words at least to a limited extent, rather than simply responding in a "Pavlovian" way to the words.

Still, the scientist's studies provide evidence that dogs respond more readily to visual cues such as gestures. This is another thing that dog people have known for a long time. I recall travelling with a friend and his dog. He always had trouble getting his dog to jump into the truck with a vocal command. I was able to show him that a sweeping gesture of the hand from thigh level up toward the open door (in combination with the command he'd been using--"Brutus, up!") got an immediate response from the dog, who readily jumped in.

"Scientists chase mystery of how dogs process words" | ScienceDaily

Quote
When some dogs hear their owners say "squirrel," they perk up, become agitated. They may even run to a window and look out of it. But what does the word mean to the dog? Does it mean, "Pay attention, something is happening?" Or does the dog actually picture a small, bushy-tailed rodent in its mind?

Frontiers in Neuroscience published one of the first studies using brain imaging to probe how our canine companions process words they have been taught to associate with objects, conducted by scientists at Emory University. The results suggest that dogs have at least a rudimentary neural representation of meaning for words they have been taught, differentiating words they have heard before from those they have not.

"Many dog owners think that their dogs know what some words mean, but there really isn't much scientific evidence to support that," says Ashley Prichard, a PhD candidate in Emory's Department of Psychology and first author of the study. "We wanted to get data from the dogs themselves -- not just owner reports."

"We know that dogs have the capacity to process at least some aspects of human language since they can learn to follow verbal commands," adds Emory neuroscientist Gregory Berns, senior author of the study. "Previous research, however, suggests dogs may rely on many other cues to follow a verbal command, such as gaze, gestures and even emotional expressions from their owners."

The Emory researchers focused on questions surrounding the brain mechanisms dogs use to differentiate between words, or even what constitutes a word to a dog.

Berns is founder of the Dog Project, which is researching evolutionary questions surrounding man's best, and oldest friend. The project was the first to train dogs to voluntarily enter a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner and remain motionless during scanning, without restraint or sedation. Studies by the Dog Project have furthered understanding of dogs' neural response to expected reward, identified specialized areas in the dog brain for processing faces, demonstrated olfactory responses to human and dog odors, and linked prefrontal function to inhibitory control.

[Continues . . .]

Cool link, Recusant! Nice to see what dog owners always knew get some corroborating scientific evidence.
I'm just a student of the game that they taught me.