Author Topic: All things brain...  (Read 15114 times)

Icarus

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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #150 on: September 05, 2019, 01:53:06 AM »

Icarus

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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #151 on: September 12, 2019, 12:38:13 AM »
This bit examines dreams and what is going on in the brain while dreaming.

 https://elemental.medium.com/what-happens-in-the-brain-when-youre-dreaming-7c0687c38d3

Ecurb Noselrub

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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #152 on: September 12, 2019, 05:44:39 PM »
This bit examines dreams and what is going on in the brain while dreaming.

 https://elemental.medium.com/what-happens-in-the-brain-when-youre-dreaming-7c0687c38d3

Very interesting.  I've often thought that in dreams the mind is taking the experiences of the day and weaving them into some story that tries to make sense of things, even in a bizarre fashion. The brain is so complex.

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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #153 on: December 24, 2019, 10:24:15 PM »
I suppose the idea that mammals use the same general location in the brain to process our perception of numbers would not be particularly controversial.  ;)

"Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans" | ScienceDaily

Quote
Dogs spontaneously process basic numerical quantities, using a distinct part of their brains that corresponds closely to number-responsive neural regions in humans, finds a study at Emory University.

Biology Letters published the results, which suggest that a common neural mechanism has been deeply conserved across mammalian evolution.

"Our work not only shows that dogs use a similar part of their brain to process numbers of objects as humans do -- it shows that they don't need to be trained to do it," says Gregory Berns, Emory professor of psychology and senior author of the study.

"Understanding neural mechanisms -- both in humans and across species -- gives us insights into both how our brains evolved over time and how they function now," says co-author Stella Lourenco, an associate professor of psychology at Emory.

Such insights, Lourenco adds, may one day lead to practical applications such as treating brain abnormalities and improving artificial intelligence systems.

Lauren Aulet, a PhD candidate in Lourenco's lab, is first author of the study.

The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan dogs' brains as they viewed varying numbers of dots flashed on a screen. The results showed that the dogs' parietotemporal cortex responded to differences in the number of the dots. The researchers held the total area of the dots constant, demonstrating that it was the number of the dots, not the size, that generated the response.

[Continues . . .]

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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #154 on: December 24, 2019, 10:33:43 PM »
I suppose the idea that mammals use the same general location in the brain to process our perception of numbers would not be particularly controversial.  ;)

"Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans" | ScienceDaily

Quote
Dogs spontaneously process basic numerical quantities, using a distinct part of their brains that corresponds closely to number-responsive neural regions in humans, finds a study at Emory University.

Biology Letters published the results, which suggest that a common neural mechanism has been deeply conserved across mammalian evolution.

"Our work not only shows that dogs use a similar part of their brain to process numbers of objects as humans do -- it shows that they don't need to be trained to do it," says Gregory Berns, Emory professor of psychology and senior author of the study.

"Understanding neural mechanisms -- both in humans and across species -- gives us insights into both how our brains evolved over time and how they function now," says co-author Stella Lourenco, an associate professor of psychology at Emory.

Such insights, Lourenco adds, may one day lead to practical applications such as treating brain abnormalities and improving artificial intelligence systems.

Lauren Aulet, a PhD candidate in Lourenco's lab, is first author of the study.

The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan dogs' brains as they viewed varying numbers of dots flashed on a screen. The results showed that the dogs' parietotemporal cortex responded to differences in the number of the dots. The researchers held the total area of the dots constant, demonstrating that it was the number of the dots, not the size, that generated the response.

[Continues . . .]

That's interesting!
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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #155 on: January 06, 2020, 01:35:51 AM »
They can see the mice's memories! Sort of.

"Engrams emerging as the basic unit of memory" | EurekAlert!

Quote

Memory engram cells labeled green and red in the prefrontal cortex of a mouse.
Image credit: Takashi Kitamura



Though scientist Richard Semon introduced the concept of the "engram" 115 years ago to posit a neural basis for memory, direct evidence for engrams has only begun to accumulate recently as sophisticated technologies and methods have become available. In a new review in Science, Professors Susumu Tonegawa of The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT and Sheena Josselyn of the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) and the University of Toronto describe the rapid progress they and colleagues have been making over the last dozen years in identifying, characterizing and even manipulating engrams, as well as the major outstanding questions of the field.

Experiments in rodents have revealed that engrams exist as multiscale networks of neurons. An experience becomes stored as a potentially retrievable memory in the brain when excited neurons in a brain region such as the hippocampus or amygdala become recruited into a local ensemble. These ensembles combine with others in other regions, such as the cortex, into an "engram complex." Crucial to this process of linking engram cells is the ability of neurons to forge new circuit connections, via processes known as "synaptic plasticity" and "dendritic spine formation." Importantly, experiments show that the memory initially stored across an engram complex can be retrieved by its reactivation but may also persist "silently" even when memories cannot be naturally recalled, for instance in mouse models used to study memory disorders such as early stage Alzheimer's disease.

[Continues . . .]
"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
— H. L. Mencken


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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #156 on: January 06, 2020, 01:54:25 AM »
Sheena A. Josselyn and Susumu Tonegawa (Nobel Prize laureate) are two big names in the field. I know plenty of people who do not agree with Tonegawa's conclusions (that he found the engram) in any of his papers. What the engram is and where it can be found is still a matter of debate.

But it's an interesting review! I have sent the link to my labmates. :grin:
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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #157 on: January 24, 2020, 06:30:37 AM »
The most highly detailed map (connectome) to date of part of a fruit fly's brain has been constructed. I don't know that the scientists who worked on this project who were not Google employees would appreciate the credit going to Google, but I suppose it makes for a more attention-grabbing headline.


"Google just created the most detailed image of a brain yet" | LiveScience

Quote
Scientists have created the most detailed 3D map of an organism brain to date. The mesmerizing threads of blue, yellow, purple and green represent thousands of brain cells and millions of connections found inside the brain of a fruit fly.

This high-resolution map, known as a "connectome," only makes up one-third of a fruit fly's brain but includes a large region involved in learning, navigation, smell and vision. Scientists found over 4,000 different types of neurons, including those involved in the fly's circadian rhythm — or internal clock — that might help researchers learn a bit more about how the insect sleeps, according to the publicly released data.

This map, a collaboration between scientists at Google and the Janelia Research Campus in Virginia, took two years to create. The team started out by cutting a fruit fly brain into extremely thin slices using a hot knife — and then imaging each slice under an electron microscope. Afterward, they stitched the images together to create a large map, tracing the paths of the neurons through the brain, according to the statement.

[Continues . . .]
"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #158 on: January 30, 2020, 01:18:14 PM »
The most highly detailed map (connectome) to date of part of a fruit fly's brain has been constructed. I don't know that the scientists who worked on this project who were not Google employees would appreciate the credit going to Google, but I suppose it makes for a more attention-grabbing headline.


"Google just created the most detailed image of a brain yet" | LiveScience

Quote
Scientists have created the most detailed 3D map of an organism brain to date. The mesmerizing threads of blue, yellow, purple and green represent thousands of brain cells and millions of connections found inside the brain of a fruit fly.

This high-resolution map, known as a "connectome," only makes up one-third of a fruit fly's brain but includes a large region involved in learning, navigation, smell and vision. Scientists found over 4,000 different types of neurons, including those involved in the fly's circadian rhythm — or internal clock — that might help researchers learn a bit more about how the insect sleeps, according to the publicly released data.

This map, a collaboration between scientists at Google and the Janelia Research Campus in Virginia, took two years to create. The team started out by cutting a fruit fly brain into extremely thin slices using a hot knife — and then imaging each slice under an electron microscope. Afterward, they stitched the images together to create a large map, tracing the paths of the neurons through the brain, according to the statement.

[Continues . . .]

Next we'll be seeing Google Brain Maps.
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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #159 on: January 30, 2020, 02:55:29 PM »
 :snicker: Thinking about Google's interest in this, I'm guessing that it's related to their development of AI.
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Re: All things brain...
« Reply #160 on: February 06, 2020, 09:24:56 PM »
:snicker: Thinking about Google's interest in this, I'm guessing that it's related to their development of AI.

That makes sense.
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