Author Topic: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing  (Read 3075 times)

Recusant

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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #15 on: September 04, 2018, 01:05:18 PM »
Moving along (autoplay video at link, though the video seems decent enough).

"CRISPR Gene Editing Fixes Muscular Dystrophy in Dogs. Are Humans Next?" | TIME

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The powerful gene editing technology CRISPR is one small step closer to treating a human disease.

In a new paper published in Science, researchers led by Eric Olson, professor and chair of molecular biology at UT Southwestern Medical Center, reported that he and his team successfully used CRISPR to correct the genetic defect responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy in four beagles bred with the disease-causing gene. It’s the first use of CRISPR to treat muscular dystrophy in a large animal. (Previous studies had tested the technology on rodents.) In varying degrees, the genetic therapy halted the muscle degradation associated with the disease.

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Dave

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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #16 on: September 04, 2018, 01:10:27 PM »
Looks promising.
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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #17 on: September 04, 2018, 05:00:25 PM »
Can the shit brained asshat element be removed from the DNA?

Recusant

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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #18 on: December 05, 2018, 07:46:45 AM »
I failed to note this story here when it first developed. Anyway, more information has come out and, well, it's not great.

"The CRISPR Baby Scandal Gets Worse by the Day" | The Atlantic

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Before last week, few people had heard the name He Jiankui. But on November 25, the young Chinese researcher became the center of a global firestorm when it emerged that he had allegedly made the first crispr-edited babies, twin girls named Lulu and Nana. Antonio Regalado broke the story for MIT Technology Review, and He himself described the experiment at an international gene-editing summit in Hong Kong. After his talk, He revealed that another early pregnancy is under way.

It is still unclear if He did what he claims to have done. Nonetheless, the reaction was swift and negative. The CRISPR pioneer Jennifer Doudna says she was “horrified,” NIH Director Francis Collins said the experiment was “profoundly disturbing,” and even Julian Savulescu, an ethicist who has described gene-editing research as “a moral necessity,” described He’s work as “monstrous.”

Such a strong reaction is understandable, given the many puzzling and worrying details about the experiment. Even without any speculation about designer babies and Gattaca-like futures that may or may not come to pass, the details about what has already transpired are galling enough. If you wanted to create the worst possible scenario for introducing the first gene-edited babies into the world, it is difficult to imagine how you could improve on this 15-part farce.

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"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
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Tank

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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #19 on: December 05, 2018, 12:00:29 PM »
It was only a matter of time :(
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Recusant

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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #20 on: March 05, 2019, 07:13:06 AM »
A couple of articles about how combining the CRISPR-Cas9 technique with another called a "gene drive" may be an effective tool for managing troublesome species like the anopheles mosquito and the cane toad. There are of course some profound ethical questions around this development, which seems to always be the case with these powerful genetic technologies.

"The CRISPR machines that can wipe out entire species" | c|net

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Charles Darwin had no idea what a gene was. If we dropped the father of evolution into 2019, the idea that humans can willfully alter the genes of an entire species would surely seem like wizardry to him.

But CRISPR gene drives -- a new, inconceivably powerful technique that forces genes to spread through a population -- have the ability to do just that. Gene drives allow us to hone the blunt edges of natural selection for our own purposes, potentially preventing the spread of disease or eradicating invasive pests.

Yet as with any science performed at the frontier of our knowledge, we are still coming to terms with how powerful CRISPR gene drives might be. Playing the game of genomes means we may, in the future, choose which species live and which die -- a near-unbelievable capability that scientists and ethicists agree presents us with unique moral, social and ethical challenges.

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"Gene Drive" | Scientific American

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Research into a genetic engineering technology that can permanently change the traits of a population or even an entire species is progressing rapidly. The approach uses gene drives—genetic elements that pass from parents to unusually high numbers of their offspring, thereby spreading through populations rather quickly. Gene drives occur naturally but can also be engineered, and doing so could be a boon to humanity in many ways. The technology has the potential to stop insects from transmitting malaria and other terrible infections, enhance crop yields by altering pests that attack plants, render corals resistant to environmental stress, and keep invasive plants and animals from destroying ecosystems. Yet investigators are deeply aware that altering or even eliminating a species could have profound consequences. In response, they are developing rules to govern the transfer of gene drives from the laboratory into future field tests and wider use.

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"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
— H. L. Mencken


Recusant

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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #21 on: March 14, 2019, 02:52:45 PM »
A call for a moratorium on editing human germlines.

"Adopt a moratorium on heritable genome editing" | Nature

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We call for a global moratorium on all clinical uses of human germline editing — that is, changing heritable DNA (in sperm, eggs or embryos) to make genetically modified children.

By ‘global moratorium’, we do not mean a permanent ban. Rather, we call for the establishment of an international framework in which nations, while retaining the right to make their own decisions, voluntarily commit to not approve any use of clinical germline editing unless certain conditions are met.

To begin with, there should be a fixed period during which no clinical uses of germline editing whatsoever are allowed. As well as allowing for discussions about the technical, scientific, medical, societal, ethical and moral issues that must be considered before germline editing is permitted, this period would provide time to establish an international framework.

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The story about this from Reuters quotes dissenting views:

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Some scientists called the proposed ban unnecessary, saying it would not prevent a scientist bent on using the technology from editing DNA in embryos to prevent disease or enhance traits of a child, as was the case with Chinese researcher He Jiankui.

“We do not think a moratorium would have deterred He Jiankui, who acted secretively and in breach of a clear scientific consensus that germline genome editing should not be used in the clinic at this time,” Sarah Norcross, director of Britain-based Progress Educational Trust, said in a statement.

Helen O’Neill, program director for Reproductive Science and Women’s Health at University College London, said the proposal ignores the fact that a global ban already exists.

O’Neill said there were legal and ethical measures in place in China and that He broke many of these rules. “It was not that he did this because the law allowed it.”

[Link to full article.]
"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
— H. L. Mencken


Recusant

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Re: CRISPR-Cas9: Developments in Genomic Editing
« Reply #22 on: April 14, 2019, 06:33:02 PM »
A different technique in the CRISPR family--Cas-3. This story isn't as dramatic as some in this thread, but it does chronicle another advance in gene editing technology.

"CRISPR-Cas3 innovation holds promise for disease cures, advancing science" | ScienceDaily

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A Cornell researcher, who is a leader in developing a new type of gene editing CRISPR system, and colleagues have used the new method for the first time in human cells -- a major advance in the field.

The new system, called CRISPR-Cas3, can efficiently erase long stretches of DNA from a targeted site in the human genome, a capability not easily attainable in more traditional CRISPR-Cas9 systems. Though robust applications may be well in the future, the new system has the potential to seek out and erase such ectopic viruses as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, and hepatitis B, each of which is a major threat to public health.

"My lab spent the past ten years figuring out how CRISPR-Cas3 works. I am thrilled that my colleagues and I finally demonstrated its genome editing activity in human cells," said Ailong Ke, professor of molecular biology and genetics and a corresponding author of a paper published April 8 in the journal Molecular Cell. "Our tools can be made to target these viruses very specifically and then erase them very efficiently. In theory, it could provide a cure for these viral diseases."

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"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration — courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and above all, love of the truth."
— H. L. Mencken