Well, that paper you linked is better to read than Chalmers'.
While I don't think consciousness is easy stuff to understand, I also don't think it's as mysterious as property dualists claim it is. It's almost like they're invoking mysterious magic to explain how a physical entity could experience thoughts, which they claim is non-physical. And that, of course, leads no where.
Bruce in that thread mentioned that:
There is nothing in the complex functioning of the brain that gives us a clue, if examining it from without, that the brain is conscious. It just looks like a complex machine responding to stimuli.
Yes, but how could it in the first place? Even if we eventually develop machines that allow us to read minds and translate "brain language" into something we can interpret as consciousness we will still filter everything through our own consciousness. Even if conscious thoughts could be measured, could they ever be experienced by another?
I saw a documentary a while back on two siamese twin sisters who were linked by the back of their heads. They shared physical substrate, both their visual cortices were merged together. They both experienced what the other saw, even though one couldn't look in the same direction. I wonder what that must be like...
But anyways, back to Bruce's quote. So we filter everything though our own consciousness. I can't help wondering what people expect another's consciousness to look like? How will we ever prove
that something else is conscious? Is it something that is self-aware? That has meta-cognition? Something that has language and can convince you that it's conscious? Is it something that behaves in a certain way? What would that way be, exactly?
We can observe behaviour but that can be problematic when determining whether something is conscious. Have you ever heard of blindsight?
It's fascinating stuff. Here's a video of a man with cortical blindness avoiding obstacles in his path that he is not consciously aware of:And then
you have people who argue we are not really conscious at all.
It's a big mess.